Ethiopia is a mountainous country in East Africa situated between 18° and 4° N. It is bordered by Sudan and South Sudan on the west, Kenya on the south, Somalia and Djibouti on the east, and Eritrea in the north. Large parts of the country lie between 1,800m/6,000 ft and 2,400 m/8,000 ft and the highest mountain rises to over 4,600 m/15,000 ft. There
are lowland regions in the east of the country. Most of Ethiopia has a tropical climate moderated by altitude, with a marked wet season at the time of high sun. The eastern lowlands are much drier with a hot, semi-arid to desert climate.
Ethiopia is one of Africa’s poorest states. Half the males and only 35% of the females are literate. The economy revolves around agriculture, which in turn relies on rainfall. The country is one of Africa’s leading coffee producers. 46% of the population is under 15 years old.
Capital: Addis Ababa population > 3 million
Area: 1,13 sq km (437.794 sq miles)
Population: 85 million (2010)
Major languages: Amharic, Oromo, Tigrinya, Somali
Major religions: Christianity, Islam
Life expectancy: 53 years (men), 58 years (women) (UN 2010)
Monetary unit: 1 Birr = 100 cents
Main exports: Coffee, hides, oilseeds, beeswax, sugarcane, flowers
GNI per capita: US $280 (World Bank, 2008)
Human Development Index rank: 157 out 169 countries in 2010 (UN)
% population living on less than $1.25 per day (2005): 39%
Annual growth rate > 10%